Teilen:

Poles in Breslau (until 1939)

For centuries, Poles were part of the history of Wrocław, the capital city of Silesia.
For centuries, Poles were part of the history of Wrocław, the capital city of Silesia.
Sellers, craftsmen, domestic employees


In the 19th century, Poles began to arrive in Wrocław from the overpopulated regions of Wielkopolska and Upper Silesia. At first, they took on various types of casual work as long as they were earning their keep. They worked in industry, craft trades and services. 

“Service in inns and shoppers in stores – wrote Wincenty Pol in his travel diary of 1847 – at first glance and everywhere there will be at least one person in a local or commercial store who speaks good Polish. All inscriptions on shops were written in two languages. Even the Germans, the owners of estates, whose goods are near to where the locals speak Polish, are learning the language to meet the needs of the people”. (Pol, Dzieła ..., p. 179).

Some of the rules set out by the city authority, such as firefighting, were also published in the Polish and German language. 

“But”, as Teresa Kulak, an expert in the history of Silesia, commented “the overall image of the town was dominated by the German language and culture to which to the Jewish population adapted more and more”. (Kulak, Historia Wrocławia…, p. 47).

Many representatives of the Polish intelligentsia, mainly doctors, solicitors and members of land owner’s families from Wielkopolska and Pomerania, also lived in Wrocław. 

Over time, the Poles also made their presence felt among the ranks of the wealthy bourgeoisie. The Poles opened businesses, workshops, hotels, pharmacies and chemists, some even had small factories. It is estimated that around 20,000 Poles were living in Wrocław at the turn of the 20th century (the official German statistics gave the number as 7,000-8,000 people).

Polish community life was played out in various rented halls. National holidays were organised and important personalities from Polish history and culture were remembered. Charity events (such as presents for poor children before Christmas) attracted a lot of attention. Popular dance evenings were held in Vinzenzhaus (today Frycza Modrzewskiego street). Even the German population got involved.

Mediathek Sorted

Mediathek
  • The memorial plaque in Wrocław commemorates the 55th anniversary of the end of the Second World War.

    Memorial plaque in Wrocław

    The memorial plaque in Wrocław commemorates the 55th anniversary of the end of the Second World War.
  • The memorial plaque in Wrocław commemorates the 55th anniversary of the end of the Second World War.

    Memorial plaque in Wrocław

    The memorial plaque in Wrocław commemorates the 55th anniversary of the end of the Second World War.
  • Memorial plaque for Wojciech Cybulski and Władysław Nehring in the main building of the University of Wrocław.

    Memorial plaque for Wojciech Cybulski and Władysław Nehring

    Memorial plaque for Wojciech Cybulski and Władysław Nehring in the main building of the University of Wrocław.
  • St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.
  • St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław, next to it the monument to Pope John XXIII.

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław, next to it the monument to Pope John XXIII

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław, next to it the monument to Pope John XXIII.
  • St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.
  • View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław from the direction of the Oder.

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.
  • Memorial plaque on St. Martin's Church in Wrocław with the "Truths of Poles under the Rodło Sign".

    Memorial plaque with the "Truths of Poles under the Rodło Sign".

    Memorial plaque on St. Martin's Church in Wrocław with the "Truths of Poles under the Rodło Sign".
  • Die Gedenktafel wurde 1983 gestiftet durch die Gesellschaft "Towarzystwo Miłośników Wrocławia".

    Die Gedenktafel wurde 1983 gestiftet durch die Gesellschaft "Towarzystwo Miłośników Wrocławia"

    Die Gedenktafel wurde 1983 gestiftet durch die Gesellschaft "Towarzystwo Miłośników Wrocławia".
  • St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław.
  • View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław from the direction of the Oder.

    View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław from the direction of the Oder.
  • View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław

    View of the St. Martin's Church (Kościół św. Marcina) in Wrocław from the direction of the Oder.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table I / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table I / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table V / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table V / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table VII / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table VII / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table VIII / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table VIII / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table IX / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table IX / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XI / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XI / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XIII / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XIII / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XIV / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław. Table XIV / XV.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.. Table XV / XV.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.. Table XV / XV.
  • Ausstellung im öffentlichen Raum über die Polonia in Breslau, organisiert durch das Zentrum für "Zukunft und Gedenken" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Breslau.

    Öffentliche Ausstellung über die Polonia in Breslau

    Ausstellung im öffentlichen Raum über die Polonia in Breslau, organisiert durch das Zentrum für "Zukunft und Gedenken" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Breslau.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.
  • Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław

    Exhibition in public space about the Polonia in Wrocław, organized by the Center for "Future and Remembrance" (Ośrodek Pamięć i Przyszłość) in Wrocław.
  • The memorial plaque for Edmund Bojanowski.

    The memorial plaque for Edmund Bojanowski

    The memorial plaque for Edmund Bojanowski.
  • The memorial plaque for Jan Evangelista Purkyne in the main building of the University of Wrocław.

    The memorial plaque for Jan Evangelista Purkyne

    The memorial plaque for Jan Evangelista Purkyne in the main building of the University of Wrocław.
  • The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty on the building of the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics of the University of Wrocław.

    The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty

    The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty on the building of the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics of the University of Wrocław.
  • The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty on the building of the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics of the University of Wrocław.

    The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty

    The Plaque for Wojciech Korfanty on the building of the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics of the University of Wrocław.
  • The plaque on the main building of the University of Wrocław commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising.

    The plaque commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising

    The plaque on the main building of the University of Wrocław commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising.
  • The plaque on the main building of the University of Wrocław commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising.

    The plaque commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising

    The plaque on the main building of the University of Wrocław commemorates the Polish students who fought in the January uprising.
  • The main building of the University of Wrocław.

    The main building of the University of Wrocław

    The main building of the University of Wrocław.
  • The main building of the University of Wrocław.

    The main building of the University of Wrocław

    The main building of the University of Wrocław.
  • The fencing fountain at the University of Wrocław.

    The fencing fountain 

    The fencing fountain at the University of Wrocław.
  • The street "Ulica Biskupia" in Wrocław (today's state).

    The street "Ulica Biskupia" in Wrocław

    The street "Ulica Biskupia" in Wrocław (today's state).
  • University of Wrocław.

    University of Wrocław

    University of Wrocław.
  • The plaque on the Wroclaw Cathedral commemorates the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.

    The plaque commemorates the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław

    The plaque on the Wroclaw Cathedral commemorates the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.
  •  The plaque on the Wroclaw Cathedral commemorates the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.

    The plaque the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław

    The plaque on the Wroclaw Cathedral commemorates the concert by Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.
  • Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.
  • Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.
  • Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław

    Monument to Fryderyk Chopin in Wrocław.